Friday, 22 May 2020

Robert Campin - part 1

Robert Campin (c. 1375 – 1444), now usually identified with the Master of Flémalle (earlier the Master of the Merode Triptych, before the discovery of three other similar panels), was the first great master of Flemish and Early Netherlandish painting. Campin's identity and the attribution of the paintings in both the "Campin" and "Master of Flémalle" groupings have been a matter of controversy for decades. Campin was highly successful during his lifetime, and thus his activities are relatively well documented, but he did not sign or date his works, and none can be securely connected with him. A corpus of work attached to the unidentified "Master of Flémalle," so named in the 19th century after three religious panels said to have come from a monastery in Flémalle. They are each assumed to be wings of triptychs or polyptychs, and are the Virgin and Child with a Firescreen now in London, a panel fragment with The Crucified Thief in Frankfurt, and the Brussels version of the Mérode Altarpiece.
Campin was active by 1406 as a master painter in Tournai, in today's Belgium, and became that city's leading painter for 30 years. He had attained citizenship by 1410, and may have studied under Jan van Eyck. His fame had spread enough by 1419 that he led a large and profitable workshop. He became involved in the revolt of the Brotherhoods in the early 1420s; this, along with an extra-marital affair with a woman named Leurence Pol, led to his imprisonment. Yet he maintained his standing and workshop until his death in 1444.
The early Campin panels shows the influence of the International Gothic artists the Limbourg brothers (1385 – 1416) and Melchior Broederlam (c. 1350 – c.1409), but display a more realistic observation than any earlier artists, which he achieved through innovations in the use of oil paints He was successful in his lifetime, and the recipient of a number of civic commissions.

Annunciation and Visitation by Melchior Broederlam (left panel of a pair)
tempera on wood 166.5 x 125 cm
Musée des Beaux-Arts de Dijon, France

Les très riches heures du Duc de Berry
(The very rich hours of the Duke of Berry)
 illumination on vellum Musée Condé, France

Campin taught both Rogier van der Weyden (named in these early records as Rogelet de la Pasture, a French version of his name) and Jacques Daret. He was a contemporary of Jan van Eyck, and they met in 1427. Campin's best known work is the Mérode Altarpiece of c 1425–28.

This is part 1 of  a 2-part post on the works of Robert Campin:

Note: In some cases I am showing Campins works at a size that will show the whole painting, followed by and enlargement showing more detail.

1410 attributed to Campin Portrait of St. Veronica
 151.5 x 61 cm 
Städel Museum, Frankfurt

1410 attributed to Campin Portrait of St. Veronica
 151.5 x 61 cm
Städel Museum, Frankfurt

Portrait of St. Veronica detail 
Städel Museum, Frankfurt

1410 Virgin and Child
oil on wood panel 160 x 68 cm 
Städelsches Kunstinstitut, Frankfurt

1410 Virgin and Child
oil on wood panel 160 x 68 cm
Städelsches Kunstinstitut, Frankfurt

c1410 The Holy Trinity 1
oil on wood panel 148.7 x 61 cm
Städelsches Kunstinstitut, Frankfurt


c1410 The Holy Trinity 1 
oil on wood panel 148.7 x 61 cm 
Städelsches Kunstinstitut, Frankfurt

1415 John the Baptist
oil on panel 17.2 x 12.2 cm
Cleveland Museum of Art, Ohio

1415 Seilern Triptych with the Entombment of Christ
oil on panel 60 x 48.9 cm (central panel without frame)
60 x 22.5 cm (wing panels without frame)
Courtauld Institute Galleries, London

1415 Seilern Triptych with the Entombment of Christ detail

1415 Seilern Triptych with the Entombment of Christ detail

1415 Seilern Triptych with the Entombment of Christ detail

1415 Seilern Triptych with the Entombment of Christ detail

1415 Seilern Triptych with the Entombment of Christ detail

1420-25 The Annunciation
oil on wood panel 76 x 70 cm
Prado Museum, Madrid

1420-25 The Annunciation detail
oil on wood panel 76 x 70 cm 
Prado Museum, Madrid

1420-25 The Annunciation detail
oil on wood panel 76 x 70 cm 
Prado Museum, Madrid

c1420 The Marriage of the Virgin Mary
oil on oak panel 77 x 88 cm
Prado Museum, Madrid

c1420 The Marriage of the Virgin Mary detail
oil on oak panel 77 x 88 cm 
Prado Museum, Madrid

c1420 The Marriage of the Virgin Mary detail
oil on oak panel 77 x 88 cm 
Prado Museum, Madrid

c1420 The Nativity
oil on wood panel 84.1 x 69.9 cm
Musée des Beaux-Arts de Dijon, France

c1420 The Nativity detail
oil on wood panel 84.1 x 69.9 cm 
Musée des Beaux-Arts de Dijon, France

c1420 The Nativity detail
oil on wood panel 84.1 x 69.9 cm 
Musée des Beaux-Arts de Dijon, France

c1420 The Nativity detail
oil on wood panel 84.1 x 69.9 cm 
Musée des Beaux-Arts de Dijon, France

1420s Annunciation
tempera on oak panel 61 x 63.7 cm
Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts, Brussels

1420s Annunciation detail
tempera on oak panel 61 x 63.7 cm 
Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts, Brussels

1420s Annunciation detail
tempera on oak panel 61 x 63.7 cm 
Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts, Brussels

c1425 Madonna by a Grassy Bank
oil on oak panel 39 x 27 cm
Staatliche Museen, Berlin

1425c Portrait of a Stout Man. Robert de Masmines (?)
oil on wood panel 35.4 x 23.7 cm
Museo Nacional Thyssen-Bornemisza, Madrid

c1427-32 Christ and the Virgin 1
(cut down at the top)
oil and gold on wood panel 28.6 x 45.6 cm
 Philadelphia Museum of Art, PA

c1427-32 Christ and the Virgin 1
(cut down at the top) 

oil and gold on wood panel 28.6 x 45.6 cm
 Philadelphia Museum of Art, PA

c1427-32 Christ and the Virgin 1 
(cut down at the top) 
oil and gold on wood panel 28.6 x 45.6 cm
 Philadelphia Museum of Art, PA

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