Friday, 21 December 2018

WW1 Posters - part 1

During World War I, the impact of the poster as a means of communication was greater than at any other time during history. The ability of posters to inspire, inform, and persuade combined with vibrant design trends in many of the participating countries to produce thousands of interesting visual works. As a valuable historical research resource, the posters provide multiple points of view for understanding this global conflict. As artistic works, the posters range in style from graphically vibrant works by well-known designers to anonymous broadsides (predominantly text).

World War I began as a conflict between the Alllies (France, the United Kingdom, and Russia) and the Central Powers (Germany and Austria-Hungary). The assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand, the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary and his wife Sophie ignited the war in 1914. Italy joined the Allies in 1915, followed by the United States in 1917. A ceasefire was declared at 11 AM on November 11, 1918.

The poster was a major tool for broad dissemination of information during the war. Countries on both sides of the conflict distributed posters widely to garner support, urge action, and boost morale. During World War II, a larger quantity of posters were printed, but they were no longer the primary source of information. By that time, posters shared their audience with radio and film.
Even with its late entry into the war, the United States produced more posters than any other country. Taken as a whole, the imagery in American posters is more positive than the relatively sombre appearance of the German posters.

Many posters asked men to do their duty and join the military forces. In the early years of the war, Great Britain issued a large number of recruitment posters. Prior to May of 1916, when conscription was introduced, the British army was all-volunteer. Compelling posters were an important tool in encouraging as many men as possible to enlist.
Women, who weren't being recruited for the military, were also asked to do their part. They could serve through relief organisations such as the YWCA or the Red Cross, or through government jobs. The Women's Land Army was originally a British civilian organisation formed to increase agricultural production by having women work the land for farmers who were serving in the military. A Women's Land Army was also assembled in the United States.

In countries where conscription was the norm (France, Germany, Austria), recruitment was not such a pressing need, and most posters were aimed at raising money to finance the war. Those who did not enlist were asked to do their part by purchasing bonds or subscribing to war loans. Many finance posters use numismatic imagery to illustrate their point. Coins transform into bullets, crush the enemy, or become shields in the war effort.
Information from Library of Congress, Washington DC

This is part 1 of a 9-part series on WW1 posters.

1914 Debout! Nos morts pour la patrie . . . voici la France! 
by Lucien Jonas ( France ) 
colour lithograph 44 x 56 cm
 Lucien Hector Jonas (1880-1947) was a French soldier-artist and illustrator of World War I. During the war he travelled along the front lines and created thousands of drawings, oil paintings, charcoals, sketches and illustrations, which were reproduced and published in magazines and books worldwide.

Born into a family of industrialists of the North of France. In 1899, he entered the School of Fine Arts in Paris in 1900. He became a member of the Society of French Artists in 1901.
In 1904, he took advantage of his stays in Anzin and the vast warehouses of the distillery to paint large compositions, inspired by the life around him. A tragedy of the mine (The Consolations) earned him the silver medal at the Salon of 1905.
Three other prizes - the Chenavard, Trémont and Stillmann awards - come to encourage him a bit more.
He won the second Grand Prix of Rome in 1905, he was celebrated in Valenciennes with his friend Lucien Brasseur, the first grand prize in sculpture, then won the gold medal (out of competition) with a travel scholarship in 1907.
In 1911, the Superior Council of Fine Arts awarded him the national prize for the painting La Consultation.
In February 1915, he was approved “Military Painter attached to the Army Museum.” In 1916, he was named official painter of the Navy.

1914 Follow me! Your country needs you ( UK )
colour lithograph 73 x 49 cm

1914 Forward! Forward to Victory Enlist Now
original artwork

1914 Forward! Forward to Victory Enlist Now

1914 Remember Scarborough! Enlist Now by Lucy Kemp-Welch ( UK )
colour lithograph 150 x 99 cm

The raid on Scarborough, Hartlepool and Whitby, UK, on 16 December 1914 by the german Navy resulted in 592 casualties, many of them civilians, of whom 137 died.

Lucy Elizabeth Kemp-Welch (1869 – 1958) was a British painter and teacher who specialised in painting working horses. In 1914 Kemp-Welch became president of the Society of Animal Painters. In 1915 she provided illustrations to an edition of Anna Sewell's “Black Beauty” and used Robert Baden-Powell’s horse Black Prince as a model. As well as pictures of horses, Kemp-Welch painted other animals, flowers and landscapes. She also painted at least two Boer War scenes, “In Sight': Lord Dundonald's dash on Ladysmith, 1901, and “Sons of the City.” Both of these featured horses in military action and led to several significant commissions for her during the World War One.

1914 Rote Kreuz-Sammlung 1914 Sammlung zugunsten der Freiwilligen Krankenpflege im Kriege
by Ludwig Hohlwein ( Germany )
colour lithograph 91 x 64 cm

Ludwig Hohlwein (1874 - 1949), born in Wiesbaden, Berchtesgaden in 1874 was a German poster artist. He was trained and practiced as an architect until 1906 when he switched to poster design.
Hohlwein was born in the Rhine-Main region of Germany, though he and his work are associated with Munich and Bavaria in southern Germany. There were two schools of ‘Gebrauchsgrafik’ (Advertising Art) in Germany at the time, North and South. Hohlwein's high tonal contrasts and a network of interlocking shapes made his work instantly recognisable.
Poster historian Alain Weill has commented that "Hohlwein was the most prolific and brilliant German posterist of the 20th century... Beginning with his first efforts, Hohlwein found his style with disconcerting facility. It would vary little for the next forty years. The drawing was perfect from the start, nothing seemed alien to him, and in any case, nothing posed a problem for him. His figures are full of touches of colour and a play of light and shade that brings them out of their background and gives them substance"
Hohlwein's most artistically important phase was before World War II in the years 1912-1925. A large variety of his best posters dates to this period. He developed his own distinct style with sharply defined forms, bright colours and a good portion of humour. By 1925, he had already designed 3000 different advertisements.

(A series on the works of Ludwig Hohlwein can be found in the index of this blog)

1914 Your King & Country Need You to maintain the Honour and Glory of the British Empire
by Lawson Wood ( UK )
colour lithograph 75 x 50 cm

1914 Your King & Country Need You to maintain the Honour and Glory of the British Empire 
by Lawson Wood ( UK ) 
colour lithograph 75 x 50 cm

 Lawson Wood, sometimes Clarence Lawson Wood, (1878 – 1957), was an English painter, illustrator and designer known for humorous depictions of cavemen and dinosaurs, policemen, and animals, especially a chimpanzee called Gran'pop, whose annuals circulated around the world. Wood was decorated by the French for his gallantry at Vimy Ridge during WW1. He was deeply concerned with animal welfare and was awarded membership in the Royal Zoological Society in 1934. His animal designs were reproduced as wooden toys and he established a sanctuary for aged creatures. In his later years, he was a recluse and died in Devon in 1957.

(A series on the works of Lawson Wood can be found in the index of this blog)

1914-18  Make this summer's garden provide next winter's vegetables ( Canada )

1914-18 "Get into khaki" We are doing our Bit
by H.M. Burton ( Australia )
colour lithograph 84 x 58 cm

Harry Marriott Burton. Britain, Australia 1882-1979

1914-18 "Help!" ( USA )
photomechanical print

1914-18 Achetez des timbres d'épargne de guerre
( Buy War Savings Stamps )
colour lithograph 63 x 44 cm ( Canada )

1914-18 Australian recruitment poster
© Imperial War Museum

1914-18 Canada's Pork Opportunity
colour lithograph 62 x 46 cm
by E. Henderson

1914-18 Clear-the-way!!
by Howard Chandler Christy ( USA )

Howard Chandler Christy (1872 – 1952) was an American artist and illustrator, famous for the "Christy Girl" – a colourful and illustrious successor to the “Gibson Girl” - who became the most popular portrait painter of the Jazz Age era. Christy painted such luminaries as Lt. Col. Theodore Roosevelt, and Presidents Warren G. Harding, Calvin Coolidge, Herbert Hoover, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Harry Truman. Other famous people he painted include William Randolph Hearst, the Prince of Wales (Edward the VIII), Eddie Rickenbacker, Benito Mussolini, Prince Umberto and Amelia Earhart. From the 1920s until the 1940s, Christy was well known for capturing the likenesses of Congressmen, Senators, industrialists, movies stars, and socialites.

1914-18 Come on! Let's finish the job - buy Victory Bonds ( Canada )

1914-18 Deutsche Minensuchflotille in der Ostsee ( Germany )
colour lithograph 140 x 94 cm
© IWM (Art.IWM PST 7281)

1914-18 Even a Dog Enlists, Why Not You? by Moody ( USA )
colour lithograph 107 x 71.3 cm

1914-18 German poster

1914-18 German poster

1914-18 German poster

1914-18 HELP by D.H. Souter ( Australia )
colour lithograph 101 x 76 cm

David Henry Souter (1862 – 1935) was an Australian artist and journalist. Born in Aberdeen, Scotland, Souter married Jessie Swanson in 1886 and together, they moved in 1886 to Melbourne, Australia, then settled in 1887 in Sydney.
A stocky and humorous man, Souter wrote short stories, verse, light articles and plays, with a capable and ready pen. He did a fair amount of painting in watercolour, but his reputation rests on his black-and-white work, which, considering the mass of it, was very even in quality. He also illustrated volumes written by Ether Turner and other Australian authors.

1914-18 It's up to you Protect the Nation's Honor, enlist now by Schneck ( USA )
colour lithograph

1914-18 Join me - The first to fight on Land and Sea - U.S. Marines ( USA )
colour lithograph

1914-18 Join the U.S. Marine Corps Soldiers of the Sea! ( USA )
photomechanical poster

1914-18 Loyalty to one means loyalty to both by Gordon Grant ( USA )
photomechanical print

1914-18 Re-establish him. It's up to us.
Buy Victory Bonds ( Canada )

1914-18 Salvage! Every Little Helps
by Sid R. Chilvers ( UK)

1914-18 The American Ambulance in Russia ( USA )
colour lithograph

1914-18 The Isle of Saints & Soldiers ( Ireland ) 

1914-18 The Trumpet Calls by Norman Lindsay ( Australia )
colour lithograph 91 x 67 cm

Norman Alfred William Lindsay (1879 – 1969) was an Australian artist, etcher, sculptor, writer, editorial cartoonist, scale modeller, and an accomplished amateur boxer. Lindsay is widely regarded as one of Australia's greatest artists, producing a vast body of work in different media, including pen and ink, drawing, etching, watercolour, oiland sculptures in concrete and bronze.

A large body of his work is housed in his former home at Faulconbridge, New South Wales, now the Norman Lindsay Gallery and Museum, and many works reside in private and corporate collections. His art continues to climb in value today. In 2002, a record price was attained for his oil painting Spring's Innocence, which sold to the National Gallery of Victoria for A$333,900.

1914-18 Together We Win by James Montgomery Flagg ( USA )
colour lithograph

James Montgomery Flagg (1877 –1960) was an American artist, comics artist and illustrator. He worked in media ranging from fine art painting to cartooning, but is best remembered for his political posters.

He was enthusiastic about drawing from a young age, and had illustrations accepted by national magazines by the age of 12 years. By 14 he was a contributing artist for Life magazine, and the following year was on the staff of another magazine, Judge. From 1894 through 1898, he attended the Art Students League of New York. He studied fine art in London and Paris from 1898 to 1900, after which he returned to the United States, where he produced countless illustrations for books, magazine covers, political and humorous cartoons, advertising, and spot drawings.
He created his most famous work in 1917, a poster to encourage recruitment during WW1. It showed Uncle Sam pointing at the viewer (inspired by a British poster showing Lord Kitchener in a similar pose) with the caption "I Want YOU for U.S. Army". Over four million copies of the poster were printed during World War 1, and it was revived for WW2.

1917 I Want You for U.S. Army
by James Montgomery Flagg ( USA ) 

colour lithograph

1914-18 U.S. Marines - "Soldiers of the sea" ( USA )
photomechanical print

1914-18 U.S. Marines - serve America on land and sea ( USA )
chromolithograph poster

1914-18 You are no Exception. Join Now ( Canada )
colour lithograph 97 x 63 cm

1914-18b G'bye Mary
The Patriotic Fund will care for you
How much will YOU give ( Canada )
colour lithograph

1915 3,000,000 Belgians are Destitute in Belgium by John Hassall ( UK )
colour lithograph 98 x 62 cm

John Hassall (1868 – 1948) was born in Walmer, Kent, Uk. He was educated in Worthing, at Newton Abbot College and then at Neuenheim College, Heidelberg. Twice failing entry to Sandhurst, he migrated to Manitoba in Canada in 1888 to study farming with Owen; however, he returned to London two years later when he had drawings accepted by The Graphic. At the suggestion of Dudley Hardy, he studied art in Antwerp, under Charles van Havermaet, and in Paris, at the Académie Julian, under Bouguereau and Ferrier; during this time he was influenced by the poster artist Alphonse Mucha. From 1895, he worked as an advertising artist for David Allen & Sons, a career that lasted fifty years and included such immortal projects as the poster Skegness is SO Bracing (1908). 

In 1901, Hassall was elected to the membership of both the Royal Institute of Painters in Water-Colour and the Royal Society of Miniature Painters.
In 1900, Hassall opened his own New Art School and School of Poster Design in Kensington, London, with the help of his former teacher Van Havermaet; he numbered Bert Thomas, H M Bateman and Harry Rountree among his students. In 1908, the school amalgamated with Frank Brangwyn’s London School, but was closed at the outbreak of the First World War. In the post war period, he ran the very successful John Hassall Correspondence School.

1915 "Fall in" 
Answer now in your Country's Hour of Need ( UK )
colour lithograph 73 x 48 cm

1915 "Get a move on old man!"
by Harry John Weston ( Australia )
 colour lithograph 91 x 61 cm

1915 An Enquiry from the Front "When are the other boys coming?" ( UK )
chromolithograph 73 x 50 cm

1915 Belgian Canal Boat Fund for the Relief of the Civil Population behind the firing lines.
Send them Something.
by John Hassall ( UK )
lithograph 75 x 50 cm

1915 Belgian Red Cross Fund
by Gerald Spencer Pryse ( UK )
 colour lithograph 101 x 76 cm

1915 Boys! Come along, you're wanted ( UK )
colour lithograph 51 x 76 cm

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