Friday, 15 November 2019

Cadavre Exquis / Exquiste Corpses

Drawings known as Cadavre Exquis (the phrase means ‘exquisite corpses’) which were the result of collaborative game-playing among members of the surrealist movement. Unlike many examples of such works, the participants of Tate’s Cadavre Exquis of c.1930 are known from an inscription on the reverse of the sheet, in André Breton’s hand, identifying them as Breton himself, the artist Valentine Hugo, the surrealist poet Paul Eluard and Eluard’s partner Nusch.

The technique of the Cadavre Exquis was discovered by members of the Surrealist movement around 1925. Based on a traditional parlour-game, it initially involved passing a piece of paper between a group of people who would each add a word secretly - typically, a noun, an adjective, a verb, an adverb, and an object – before folding the sheet and passing it to the next player.

The name Cadavre Exquis derived from one of the first games which had produced the line ‘Le cadavre exquis boira le vin nouveau’ (‘The exquisite corpse will drink the young wine’). The sentences produced in this collective and experimental way were, as the leader of the surrealist movement André Breton noted, ‘designed to provide the most paradoxical confrontation possible between the elements of speech’ and were appreciated by the surrealists for their disruption of everyday logic. Such unexpected combinations of ideas and images seemed to the surrealists to create fantastic imaginary worlds. Quickly the game was extended to visual imagery, where each of the participants would create a ‘body’ consisting - notionally at least - of head, chest and arms, torso, legs and feet.
Notes from Tate, London


1925 Yves Tanguy and André Masoon

1926 Andre Breton, Yves Tanguy, Marcel Duhamel, Max Morise

1927 Man Ray, Joan Miro, Max Morise, Yves Tanguy
ink, pencil, coloured caron and collage on paper 36 x 23 cm
Centre Pompidou, Paris
© Philippe Migeat - Centre Pompidou, MNAM-CCI /Dist. RMN-GP

1927 "Nude"
Yves Tanguy, Joan Miró, Max Morise, Man Ray
 pencil, ink and coloured pencils on paper 35.9 x 22.9 cm
Museum of Modern Art, New York
© 2018 Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York - ADAGP, Paris


1927 Man Ray, Max Morise, André Breton and Yves Tanguy
grease pencil, pen and ink and pencil on paper 31.1 x 20.5 cm

1927 Max Ernst, André Masson, Max Morise
 pencil and coloured crayon on paper 20.8 x 15.5 cm
Centre Pompidou, Paris

1927 Max Morise, Joan Miró, Yves Tanguy, Man Ray
pencil, India ink and crayon on paper 36 x 23 cm

1927 Max Morise, Man Ray, Yves Tanguy, Joan Miró

1927 Yves Tanguy, Man Ray, Max Morise, Joan Miró

1927 Yves Tanguy, Man Ray, Max Morise

1927 Yves Tanguy, Max Morise, Joan Miró, Man Ray

1927c Max Morise, Man Ray, Yves Tanguy, Joan Miró
pencil, India ink and crayon on paper
© Successió Miró/ ADAGP, Paris


1928 Yves Tanguy, Man Ray, Max Morise, André Breton
pen and brown ink, and graphite with smudging, with coloured crayons on cream wove paper 31.1 x 20 cm 

Art Institute of Chicago, IL 
© 2018 Man Ray Trust - Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York - ADAGP, Paris


1928 Max Morise, Jeannette Ducrocq Tanguy, Pierre Naville, Benjamin Péret, Yves Tanguy, Jacques Prévert
collage 28.9 x 22.9 cm
Museum of Modern Art, New York

1928 Man Ray, Max Morise, André Breton, Yves Tanguy
coloured crayon, crayon and ink on paper 30.5 x 20 cm
National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne

1928 Man Ray, Yves Tanguy, Joan Miró, Max Morise
1929 Greta Knutson, Tristan Tzara, Valentine Hugo

1929 Paul and Nush Eluard, André Breton
 coloured crayon on black paper 32 x 25 cm

1929 Paul Éluard, André Breton & Nusch Éluard

1930 Nusch Eluard, Valentine Hugo, André Breton, Paul Éluard

1930c André Breton, Nusch Eluard, Valentine Hugo, Paul Eluard
crayon on paper 31 x 24 cm
Tate, London

1930c Valentine Hugo, André Breton
coloured crayon on black paper 31.5 x 23.7 cm

1932 Salvador Dali, Valentine Hugo, André Breton, Gala Dali

1932c Salvador Dalí, André Breton, Gala, Valentine Hugo
India ink on paper 27 x 18.5 cm
© Some rights reserved. Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía, 2018

1933 ( landscape progression ) Valentine Hugo, André Breton, Tristan Tzara, Greta Knutson
 coloured pencil on black Paper 24.1 x 31.7 cm
 Museum of Modern Art, New York

1934 André Breton, Gala Dalí, Salvador Dalí, Valentine Hugo

1934 Jacques Hérold, Yves Tanguy, Victor Brauner
pencil on paper 25.6 x 16.5 cm
Museum of Modern Art, New York

1934 Yves Tanguy, Victor Brauner, Jacques Hérold

1934c André Breton, Victor Brauner, Yves Tanguy, Jacques Hérold
graphite on paper 26 x 16.5 cm
© The Menil Collection, Houston, Texas

 Esteban Francés, Remedios Varo, Oscar Domínguez, Marcel Jean
collage on paper 27.3 x 20.8 cm
Museum of Modern Art, New York
© 2018 / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York 

1938 André Breton, Jacqueline Lamba, Yves Tanguy
collage on paper 25.2 x 16.7 cm
© Jean-Claude Planchet - Centre Pompidou, MNAM-CCI /Dist. RMN-GP © Adagp, Paris

1938 André Breton, Jacqueline Lamba, Yves Tanguy
collage on paper
© Philippe Migeat - Centre Pompidou, MNAM-CCI /Dist. RMN-GP © Adagp, Paris

1938 André Breton, Jacqueline Lamba, Yves Tanguy collage on paper

1938 André Breton, Jacqueline Lamba, Yves Tanguy
collage

1938 André Breton, Yves Tanguy, Jannette Tanguy, Jaqueline Lamba
collage 30.4 x 19.7 cm

1938 Victor Brauner, Jacques Hérold, Violette Hérold, Yves Tanguy, and Raoul Ubac
collage

1940 André Breton, Jacques Herold, Wifredo Lam
ink, pencil, coloured crayon and collage on paper
 29.8 x 22.9 cm

© Philippe Migeat - Centre Pompidou, MNAM-CCI /Dist. RMN-GP

1949 Elisa Breton, Benjamin Peret, André Breton pencil and frottage on paper 27 x 21 cm
Gallery of Surrealism, New York

n.d. André Breton, Jacqueline Lamba, Yves Tanguy
collage

n.d. André Breton, Valentine Hugo, Paul and Nusch Éluard

n.d. André Breton
oil pastel and coloured chalk on paper 32.4 x 25.2 cm

n.d. André Breton, Eugène Grindel, Nusch Eluard, Paul Eluard, Valentine Hugo

n.d. Valentine Hugo, Paul Eluard, André Breton
 pastel on black paper 40.4 x 25 cm

n.d. Man Ray, Joan Miró, Yves Tanguy, Max Morise  
graphite on ivory wove paper 24.5 x 19 cm
Art Institute of Chicago, IL
© 2018 Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York / ADAGP, Paris

Wednesday, 13 November 2019

Charles Dana Gibson - part 12



Born in Roxbury, Massachusetts, Charles Dana Gibson attended the Art Students League in New York, studying with Thomas Eakins and Kenyon Cox. Hugely successful at the turn of the century, he left New York from 1905 to 1907 to study painting in France, Spain, and Italy.

Gibson's name is still remembered for its association with the icon he created, the "Gibson Girl." This idealised, refined upper-middle-class woman became so popular that she was featured in stage plays, and her image was printed on a variety of domestic objects. The highest-paid illustrator of his time, in 1904 Gibson accepted a contract from Collier's Weekly, which paid him $100,000 for one hundred illustrations over four years. Gibson's illustrations gently satirised public life and mores. During World War I, as president of the Society of Illustrators, Gibson formed and became head of the Division of Pictorial Publicity under the Federal Committee of Public Information. Through this program, prominent illustrators were recruited to design posters, billboards, and other publicity for the war effort. His involvement with publicity during the war led Gibson to become owner and editor of Life, a New York-based magazine filled with short articles and illustrations. In the early 1930s Gibson retired in order to devote more time to painting.

For more information about Charles Dana Gibson see part 1, and for earlier works see parts 1 - 11 also. 

This is part 12 of a 12-part series on the works of Charles Dana Gibson. 
A few late works:



1923c Like the moth, it works in the dark
 charcoal 34.7 x 56.4 cm
Library of Congress, Washington, DC

1925 Life magazine Beauty Number
March 26 1925

1925 Life magazine cover "Worship"
 April 9 1925

1926 Eenie, meenie, minie, mo
pen and ink over graphite 38.1 x 53.8 cm
Library of Congress, Washington, DC

1938c Mrs. Micawber, David Copperfield, and Traddles

1942 Girl in Red and Blue
oil on canvas 95.2 x 71.1 cm

Works by Gibson I didn't find dates for:


"Bedtime Story," by Charles Dana Gibson
Life Publishing Co.

 (Three Women)
ink on  paper 22.2 x 34.9 cm

A First Night

A Word to the Wise.
Have a Book in Case you are Bored.

After Dinner
43.2 x 56.5 cm

After Dinner

Big Game
Life Publications Co.

 Bull And Bear Fight.
New York Public Library

Duplicates
pen and ink over graphite 33 x 51.7 cm

Foiled Again.
ink on paper 25.1 x 38.1 cm

Inauguration Day in the Diplomatic Gallery, Washington

Paderewski at the Piano
ink and wash on paper 38.1 x 27.9 cm

Studies in Expression
pen and ink on board 72.7 x 48 cm

The Golfer
ink on paper 45.7 x 25.4 cm

The News
pen and ink on board 48 x 72.7 cm

The Proposal
pen and ink on paper 55.9 x 38.1 cm

The Street Singer
pen and ink on paper 57.5 x 91 cm
Art Institute of Chicago, IL

The Vanishing Sex
Interesting Survival of an Old School Custom of Asking Husbands to Dinner-Parties
Life Publishing Co.

Two Blind Women

Two Figures in Interior
ink on paper 17.8 x 19 cm

Untitled
pen and ink on board 72.7 x 48 cm

Lastly, undated examples of Charles Dana Gibson's most iconic creation, "The Gibson Girl" :


Gibson Girl
pencil on card 22.9 x 15.9 cm

Gibson Girl
pen and ink on paper 31.7 x 24.2 cm

Gibson Girl
Smithsonian Museum, Washington, DC

Head of a Girl
pen and ink 34 x 27.2 cm ( sheet )
Library of Congress, Washington, DC

Untitled
pen and ink on paper 53.3 x 35.6 cm