Friday 21 November 2014

Autochromes - part 1

Edward J. Steichen, portrait of Alfred Stieglitz 1907 
23.9 x 18 cm 
Alfred Stieglitz Collection, 1955 
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

The Autochrome Lumière is an early colour photography process. Patented in 1903 by Lumière brothers in France and first marketed in 1907, it was the principal colour photography process in use before the advent of subtractive colour film in the mid-1930s.

Autochrome is an additive colour “mosaic screen plate” process. The medium consists of a glass plate coated on one side with a random mosaic of microscopic grains of potato starch dyed red-orange, green, and blue-violet, which act as colour filters. Lamp black fills the spaces between the grains, and a black and white panchromatic silver halide emulsion is coated on top of the filter layer.

Unlike ordinary black and white glass plates, the Autochrome was loaded into the camera with the bare glass side facing the lens, so that the light passed through the mosaic filter layer before reaching the emulsion. The use of an additional special orange-yellow filter in the camera was required to block ultraviolet light and restrain the effects of violet and blue light, parts of the spectrum to which the emulsion was overly sensitive.

Autochrome plates required much longer exposures than black-and-white plates and films, which meant that a tripod or other stand had to be used and that it was not practical to photograph moving subjects. The plate was reversal-processed into a positive transparency – that is, the plate was first developed into a negative image but not “fixed”, then the silver forming the negative image was chemically removed, then the remaining silver halide was exposed to light and developed, producing the positive image.

Each starch grain remained in alignment with the corresponding microscopic area of emulsion coated over it. When the finished image was viewed by transmitted light, each bit of the silver image acted as a valve, allowing more or less light to pass through the corresponding coloured starch grain, recreating the original proportions of the three colours. At normal viewing distances the light coming through the individual grains blended together in the eye, reconstructing the colour of the light photographed through the filter grains.

Wikipedia

This is part 1 of a 3-part post on Autochromes:

Autochromes from the U.S.A.


Alfred Stieglitz (1864 – 1946) was an American photographer and modern art promoter who was instrumental over his fifty-year career in making photography an accepted art form. In addition to his photography, Stieglitz is known for the New York art galleries that he ran in the early part of the 20th century, where he introduced many avant-garde European artists to the U.S. He was married to painter Georgia O’Keefe.


1907c Alfred Stieglitz portrait of Kitty Stieglitz
Art Institute of Chicago, IL

1907c Alfred Stieglitz portrait of Kitty Stieglitz
Art Institute of Chicago, IL

1907c Alfred Stieglitz, Frank Eugene
Yale Collection of American Literature, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library


1907 Alfred Stieglitz, Mrs Selma Schubart 
16.5 x 12.8 cm Alfred Stieglitz Collection 1955
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

1907 Alfred Stieglitz, Man in Red Sweater 
17.9 x 12.8 cm Alfred Stieglitz Collection 1955
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

1907 Alfred Stieglitz, Man in Red Sweater 
17.9 x 12.8 cm Alfred Stieglitz Collection 1955
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

1907 Alfred Stieglitz, Two Men Playing Chess 
9 x 12 cm cm Alfred Stieglitz Collection 1955
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

1910c Alfred Stieglitz, Emmeline O. Stieglitz
Yale Collection of American Literature, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library

1910c Alfred Stieglitz, Edward Stieglitz
Yale Collection of American Literature, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library

1910c Alfred Stieglitz, Hedwig Stieglitz
Yale Collection of American Literature, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library

1910c Alfred Stieglitz, Katherine Stieglitz
Yale Collection of American Literature, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library

1911 Alfred Stieglitz, Portrait of Kitty 
17.8 x 12.7 cm Gilman Collection, Purchase, Mrs. Walter Annenberg and The Annenberg Foundation Gift, 2005
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

1915 Alfred Stieglitz, Dorothy O. Schubartca
Yale Collection of American Literature, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library

1915c Alfred Stieglitz, Alfred and Emmeline O. Stieglitz
Yale Collection of American Literature, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library

1917c Alfred Stieglitz, Alfred Joseph Obermeyer and Katherine Stieglitz
Yale Collection of American Literature, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library 

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1910c Wladimir Schonin, Still Life with Egg

1915c Nathan Straus, Flora Stieglitz Straus
Yale Collection of American Literature, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library

1915c Nathan Straus, Flora Stieglitz Straus
Yale Collection of American Literature, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library

1915c Nathan Straus, Jacobina Staerk Stieffel
Yale Collection of American Literature, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library

French Autochromes:


1907 -10c Louis and Auguste Lumiere ( attributed to ) 
Young Girl with Roses

1907-10c Louis and Auguste Lumiere ( attributed to ) 
Couple Seated in Garden

1910 Anonymous - A French Soldier

1910c Anonymous - Woman in Historical Costume

1910c Anonymous - Woman in Historical Costume

1910c Jules Gervais Courtellemont, Dancers with Pink Flowers 
12 x 9 cm

1923 Jules Gervais Courtellemont, The Moulin Rouge, Paris

1930c Paris. Musée Nicéphore-Niépce, Chalon-sur-Saône, France

1918 Étienne Clémentel, Monet and his Garden 


Étienne Clémentel (1864 – 1936) was a French government official with a portfolio in economics and also a close friend of Prime Minister George Clemenceau. It was Clemenceau who took the lead (in 1914) encouraging Monet to paint several large Water Lily panels to be donated to the State. When Clemenceau visited Giverny in 1918 to choose the panels that were to be installed in the Musée de l’Orangerie in Paris, Clémental accompanied him and took these Autochromes.


1918 Étienne Clémentel, Monet and his Garden

1918 Étienne Clémentel, Monet and his Garden

1918 Étienne Clémentel, Monet and his Garden

1918 Étienne Clémentel, Monet and his Garden

1918 Étienne Clémentel, Monet and his Garden

1918 Étienne Clémentel, Monet and his Garden

1918 Étienne Clémentel, Monet and his Garden

1918 Étienne Clémentel, Monet and his Garden


Tuesday 18 November 2014

Katsushika Hokusai – part 19

Hokusai Sketchbook
Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam

Katsushika Hokusai (1760 – 1849) was a Japanese ukiyo-e (pictures of the floating world) painter and printmaker and painter, born in Edo (now Tokyo), and is best known for his woodblock print series Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji c. 1830-35 which includes the internationally recognised print The Great Wave off Kanagawa.

Hokusai created the series both as a response to a domestic travel boom and as part of a personal obsession with Mount Fuji itself. It was this series that secured Hokusai’s fame both in Japan and overseas.

This is part 19 of a 19 - part post on the works Katsushika Hokusai. For full biographical notes see part 1 and for earlier works see parts 1 - 18 also.


n.d. The Storehouse of Loyal Retainers:



n.d ( attributed to ) Act VII from the series The Storehouse of Loyal Retainers, a Primer 
colour woodblock print 11.2 x 15.8 cm

n.d. ( attributed to ) Act I from the series The Storehouse of Loyal Retainers, a Primer 
colour woodblock print 11.1 x 15.7 cm

n.d. ( attributed to ) Act II from the series The Storehouse of Loyal Retainers, a Primer 
colour woodblock print 11.3 x 15.8 cm

n.d. ( attributed to ) Act III from the series The Storehouse of Loyal Retainers, a Primer 
colour woodblock print 11.3 x 15.6 cm

n.d. ( attributed to ) Act IX from the series The Storehouse of Loyal Retainers, a Primer 
colour woodblock print 10.9 x 15.8 cm

n.d. ( attributed to ) Act V from the series The Storehouse of Loyal Retainers, a Primer 
colour woodblock print 11.1 x 15.8 cm

n.d. ( attributed to ) Act VI from the series The Storehouse of Loyal Retainers, a Primer 
colour woodblock print 11.2 x 15.8 cm

n.d. ( attributed to ) Act VIII from the series The Storehouse of Loyal Retainers, a Primer  colour woodblock print 11.1 x 15.8 cm

n.d. ( attributed to ) Act X from the series The Storehouse of Loyal Retainers, a Primer 
colour woodblock print 11 x 16 cm

n.d. ( attributed to ) Act XI, Part 2  from the series The Storehouse of Loyal Retainers, a Primer 
colour woodblock print 11 x 15.7 cm

n.d. ( attributed to ) Act XI, Part 2 from the series The Storehouse of Loyal Retainers, a Primer 
colour woodblock print 11 x 15.7 cm


n.d. The Treasury of Loyal Retainers:

n.d. Attack at Ko no Moronao's House - Act 11 
colour woodblock print 22.9 x 17.3 cm 
Harvard Art Museums, Cambridge, MA

n.d. Finding Moronao in the Storage - Act 11 
colour woodblock print 22.9 x 17.3 cm 
Harvard Art Museums, Cambridge, MA

n.d. Hayano Kanbei and his Wife Okaru- Act 6 
colour woodblock print 23.1 x 17.5 cm 
Harvard Art Museums, Cambridge, MA

n.d. Kakogawa Honzo Showing the Blueprint of the House of Kô no Moronao - Act 9 
colour woodblock print 23 x 17.3 cm 
Harvard Art Museums, Cambridge, MA

n.d. Kakogawa Tonase and Konami Travelling by River - Act 8 
colour woodblock print 22.8 x 17.3 cm 
Harvard Art Museums, Cambridge, MA

n.d. Oboshi Yura no Suke's Vassals Attacking the Shop of Amakawaya Gihei - Act 10 
colour woodblock print 23 x 17.2 cm 
Harvard Art Museums, Cambridge, MA

n.d. Yura no Suke at the Tea House, Ichiriki - Act 7 
colour woodblock print 23.3 x 17.4 cm 
Harvard Art Museums, Cambridge, MA

n.d. Twelve Views of the Eastern Capital (four found here):

n.d. Ochanomizu, from the series "Twelve Views of the Eastern Capital" 
ink and colour painting on paper 11.3 x 17.5 cm

n.d. Ryogoku, from the series "Twelve Views of the Eastern Capital" 
colour woodblock print 11.4 x 17.4 cm

n.d. Sakai-cho, from the series "Twelve Views of the Eastern Capital" 
colour woodblock print 11.3 x 17.4 cm

n.d. Takanawa, from the series "Twelve Views of the Eastern Capital" 
ink and colour painting on paper 11.4 x 17.2 cm

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n.d. Six Sage Poets ( Rokkasen ) Preparing for the Tanabata Festival 
colour woodblock print 23.6 x 37.2 cm 
Harvard Art Museums, Cambridge, MA

n.d. Sketch of Figures Prepared for Instruction of a Pupil 
ink on paper 27.7 x 20.2 cm

n.d. Street Scene at Takanawa 
colour woodblock print 20 x 36.5 cm

n.d. Tachibana Armor with Chrysanthemum-Stream Motif and Sutra Scroll of Universal Gate Chapter with poem by Sôkaen Takemaru 
colour woodblock print 20.9 x 18.6 cm 
Harvard Art Museums, Cambridge, MA

n.d. The Minister Toru, from the series A True Mirror of Chinese and Japanese Poetry, also called Imagery of the Poets
 woodblock print

n.d. The No Play Hagoromo 
colour woodblock print 24.5 x 35.8 cm

n.d. The Peasant Class 
colour woodblock print 12.5 x 8.1 cm

n.d. The Return from the Picnic 
colour woodblock print 47.7 x 26.6 cm

n.d. The Sumida River in Snow 
colour woodblock print 24.7 x 37.3 cm

n.d. Three Geese 
colour woodblock print 
Harvard Art Museums, Cambridge, MA

n.d. Three Women and Two Children on Balcony by Temple 
colour woodblock print 25 x 38.6 cm 
Harvard Art Museums, Cambridge, MA

n.d. Three Women Reaching for Shuttlecock, with poem by Senrintei 
colour woodblock print 13.9 x 18.8 cm

n.d. Travellers at Hiratsuka 
colour woodblock print 12 x 16.1 cm 
Harvard Art Museums, Cambridge, MA

n.d. Two Girls Gathering New Greens by the Water, with poem by Senri Shunto 
colour woodblock print 13.2 x 18.3 cm 
Harvard Art Museums, Cambridge, MA

n.d. Two Girls Looking Down at a Well, from the series "Six Women Picture Book Match, with poems by Shôfûtei Morihito and an Associate" 
colour woodblock print 13.4 x 18.4 cm 
Harvard Art Museums, Cambridge, MA

n.d. Two Turtles and Kerria Roses 
colour woodblock print 24.6 x 35.2 cm

n.d. Two Women and a Herdboy on an Ox with Baskets of Iris 
colour woodblock print 24.6 x 35.5 cm

n.d. Two Women Visiting Others at a Pavilion in Snow 
colour woodblock print 22.9 x 34.7 cm

n.d. Two Young Ladies at Shore: One Pointing 
colour woodblock print 20 x 18.4 cm 
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

n.d. View of Koshigoe from Shichirigahama, with poems by Rokujuan Fukumaro and Shuchodo 
colour woodblock print 20.5 x 18.3 cm 
Harvard Art Museums, Cambridge, MA

n.d. View of Ohara 
colour woodblock print 25.6 x 38.3 cm

n.d. Wagtail and Azalea
 colour woodblock print 
Harvard Art Museums, Cambridge, MA

n.d. Wave 
woodblock print 37.3 x 27.1 cm 
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

n.d. Woman arranging flowers in vase, from the series Haikai Shuitsu ( Masterpieces of Popular Poetry ) 
woodblock print 19.8 x 15.1 cm

n.d. Woman Cleaning Fish as Another Woman Reads a Book 
colour woodblock print 13.5 x 18.9 cm

n.d. Woman with Poem Paper: One Man Seated on Bench, another by Small Wine Bar 
colour woodblock print 14.1 x 18 cm

n.d. Woman with Two Children and Monkey by the Sumida River, Distant View of Matsuchiyama 
colour woodblock print 38.7 x 52 cm 
Harvard Art Museums, Cambridge, MA

n.d. Women and Children Returning Along the Bank of the Sumida from a Visit to a Shinto Shrine 
colour woodblock print 19.9 x 37.1 cm

n.d. Women Fishing for Sea Bream 
colour woodblock print 24.5 x 35.8 cm

n.d. Women Gathering Iris 
colour woodblock print 18.9 x 52 cm 
Harvard Art Museums, Cambridge, MA

n.d. Women in a Landscape
 colour woodblock print

n.d. Young Lady with Lamp: Man and Woman on Veranda of Tea-House 
colour woodblock print 16 x 31.6 cm