Sunday, 20 July 2014

Rembrandt – part 14

1661 Self-Portrait as the Apostle St. Paul oil on canvas 91 x 77 cm Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam

Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (1606 – 1669) is considered one of the greatest painters and printmakers in European art and the most important in Dutch history. Having achieved youthful success as a portrait painter, Rembrandt’s later years were marked by personal tragedy and financial hardships. Yet his etchings were popular throughout his lifetime, his reputation as an artist remained high, and for twenty years he taught many important Dutch painters. His greatest creative triumphs are exemplified especially in his portraits of his contemporaries, self-portraits and illustrations of scenes from the Bible. His self-portraits form a unique and intimate biography, in which the artist surveyed himself without vanity and with the utmost sincerity.

This is part 14 (final part) of a 14 - part post on the works of Rembrandt. For full biographical notes see part 1, the introduction. For earlier works, see parts 2 - 13 also.


1660 The Denial of St Peter oil on canvas 154 x 169 cm

1660-62 Pilate Washing His Hands oil on canvas 130 x 167 cm Metropolitan Museum of art, New York

1660-64 The Amstelveense Road Outside Amsterdam pen and brush in brown on light brown cartridge paper 13.5 x 20.4 cm

1660-64c Lion Resting pen in brown on brown paper 12.2 x 21.2 cm

1660-70 The Good Samaritan pen and brown ink with brush and brown wash on paper 19.2 x 24.2 cm Art Institute of Chicago IL

1660c Portrait of a Young Man Seated at a Table oil on canvas 109.9 x 89.5 cm National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C.

1660c Seated Female Nude 21.1 x 17.4 cm Art Institute of Chicago IL

early 1660s Man with a Magnifying Glass oil on canvas 91.4 x 74.3 cm Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

early 1660s Woman with a Pink oil on canvas 92.1 x 74.6 cm Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

1661 Christ Resurrected oil on canvas 78.5 x 63 cm Alte Pinakothek, Munich

1661 Christ with a Pilgrim's Staff oil on canvas 95.3 x 82.6 cm The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

1661 Man with a Falcon on his Wrist oil on canvas 138 x 119 cm Gothenburg Museum of Art, Sweden

1661 Monk Reading oil on canvas 82 x 66 cm Finnish National Gallery, Helsinki

1661 Naked Woman Sitting on a Bed with a Curtain Cord in her Hand etching, drypoint and burin on paper 20.3 x 12.3 cm

1661 Portrait of a Bearded Man oil on canvas 71 x 61 cm The Hermitage, St. Petersburg

1661 Portrait of Jacob Trip oil on canvas 130.5 x 97 cm The National gallery, London

1661 Saint James the Greater oil on canvas 91.1 x 74.9 cm

1661 St. Bartholomew oil on canvas 86.7 x 75.6 cm The J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles CA

1661 The Apostle Simon oil on canvas 98.3 x 79 cm Kunsthaus Zürich

1661 The Conspiracy of Julius Civilis 19.6 x 18 cm Staaliche Graphihische Sammlung, Munich

1661 The Evangelist Matthew and the Angel oil on canvas 96 x 81 cm Louvre-Lens, Pas-de-Calais, France

1661 The Virgin of Sorrows oil on canvas 107 x 81 cm Musée Départemental d'art Ancien et Contemporain, Epinal, France

1661 Two Young Africans oil on canvas 77.8 x 64.4 cm Mauritshuis, The Hague, Netherlands

1661-58 Naked Woman Lying on a Pillow sketch on paper 13.6 x 28.3 cm Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam

1661-62 Seated Female Nude pen and brush in brown, black chalk and white paint on ledger paper 29.2 x 17.5 cm

1661-62 Seated Steel Master Jacob van Loon pen and brush in brown and white paint on ledger paper 19.5 x 16 cm

1661-62 The Conspiracy of the Batavians under Claudius Civilis

One of the painters commissioned to make a ‘Batavian’ painting for the new Amsterdam town hall, Rembrandt chose the moment of the oath of the Batavians in the sacred grove, as described by Tacitus, Histories IV, 14. Civilis, with crown and sword, is the main protagonist of the composition. Unlike his fellow painters, Rembrandt decided to depict Civilis with one blind eye, as some of the sources had described his appearance. In 1662 it was reportedly on display at the town hall, but shortly afterwards, it was removed from the building. The painting, originally measuring more than 5 by 5 metres, was reduced to about 2 by 3 metres, which incidentally makes Civilis’s blind eye more clearly visible.

1661-62 The Conspiracy of the Batavians under Claudius Civilis oil on canvas 196 x 309 cm Nationalmuseum, Stockholm

1661c Portrait of Margaretha de Geer oil on canvas 130.5 x 97 cm The National Gallery, London

1662 The Wardens of the Amsterdam Drapers’ Guild, Known as ‘The Syndics’ oil on canvas 1915 x 279 cm

1662-64c Self-Portrait as Zeuxis Laughing oil on canvas 82.5 x 65 cm Wallraf-Richartz-Museum, Cologne

1662-65 Juno oil on canvas 127 x 107.5 cm Hammer Museum, Los Angeles CA

1662c Portrait of a Woman with a Lapdog oil on canvas 81 x 64 cm Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto

1663 A Young Man

Fragments of a signature and date were found during cleaning in 1949-53, but such possible traces as have since been discovered (lower left) do not seem convincing. The traditional attribution to Rembrandt was rejected by Richter in 1880, but reinstated by Valentiner and has now been widely, though not universally, accepted. Doubts have recently been expressed by Tümpel. The identification of the sitter as Rembrandt's son, Titus (proposed by Valentiner in 1909) is not generally accepted.

1663 A Young Man (attributed to) oil on canvas 73 x 60 cm Dulwich Picture Gallery, London

1663 Bust of a Young Jew oil on canvas 65.8 x 57.5 cm Kimbell Art Museum, Fort Worth TX

1663 Homer

The only surviving painting from a series of seven by Rembrandt, Guercino, Matia Preti, Salvator Rosa, and Giacinto Brandi. Parts were removed from all four sides as a result of fire damage, following an earthquake that struck Antonio Ruffo's palace in Messina in 1783. Only two fingers remained of the pupils that were present in the complete painting.

1663 Homer oil on canvas 107 x 82 cm Mauritshuis, The Hague, Netherlands

1663 Portrait of Frederick Rihel on Horseback oil on canvas 294.5 x 241 cm The National Gallery, London

1663c Portrait of a Man, Seated oil on canvas 121.3 x 94 cm National Gallery of Art, Washinton D.C.

1664 Lucretia oil on canvas 120 x 101 cm National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C.

1664-65 Pallas Athena or, Armoured Figure (attributed to) oil on canvas 118 x 91 cm Museu Calouste Gulbenkian, Lisbon, Portugal

1665 David and Uriah oil on canvas 127 x 117 cm The Hermitage, St. Petersburg

1665 Jan Antonides van der Linden etching, drypoint and burin on paper 17.3 x 10.5 cm

1665 Portrait of an Old Man oil on canvas 104 x 86 cm Uffizi Gallery, Florence

1665 Portrait of Gérard de Lairesse oil on canvas 112.7 x 87.6 cm Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

1665-69 Self-Portrait with Two Circles oil on canvas 114.3 x 94 cm Kenwood House, London

1665c Portrait of a Lady with a Lap Dog oil on canvas 81.3 x 64.1 cm Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto

1665c The Jewish Bride oil on canvas 121.5 x 166.5 cm Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam

1665c The Jewish Bride (detail)

1666 Lucretia oil on canvas 110.2 x 92.3 cm Minneapolis Institute of Arts MN

1666 Portrait of Jeremias de Decker oil on panel 71 x 56 cm The Hermitage, St. Petersburg

1666 Young Man in a Black Beret oil on canvas 81.6 x 64.4 cm Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City MO

1666-69 The Return of the Prodigal Son oil on canvas 262 x 205 cm The Hermitage, St. Petersburg

1667 Portrait of a White-Haired Man oil on canvas 108.9 x 92.7 cm National Gallery of Victoria, Australia

1667 Portrait of an Elderly Man oil on canvas 81.9 x 67.7 cm Mauritshuis, The Hague, Netherlands

1668c Family Portrait oil on canvas 126 x 167 cm Herzog Anton Ulrich Museum, Braunschweig, Germany

1668c Portrait of a Young Woman (Magdalena van Loo?) oil on canvas 56.3 x 48 cm Montreal Museum of Fine Arts, Canada

1669 Self Portrait oil on canvas 86 x 70.5 cm National Gallery, London

1669 Self-Portrait oil on canvas 65.4 x 60.2 cm The Mauritshuis, The Hague, Netherlands

1669 Self-Portrait oil on canvas 85 x 61 cm Gallerie degli Uffizi, Florence

1669 Simeon with the Infant Jesus in the Temple oil on canvas 98 x 79 cm Nationalmuseum, Stockholm

1675-(1725) The Press etching on paper 9.8 x 7 cm

1677-90 The Rat Poison Seller etching and engraving on paper 14.2 x 12.3 cm

n.d Old Man Seated in an Armchair Teylers Museum, Haarlem

n.d. Man Crying Out, Three-Quarters Left etching on paper 4 x 3.4 cm

n.d. The Adoration of the Shepherds pen and brown ink on paper 10 x 8.4 cm Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge UK

n.d. The Star of Kings. The British Museum, London

n.d. Three Studies of a Child and One of an Old Woman brown ink, brown wash and white gouache on white antique laid paper 21.5 x 16.1 cm Harvard Art Museums - Fogg Museum, Cambridge MA