Monday, 31 December 2018

WW1 Posters - part 3

During World War I, the impact of the poster as a means of communication was greater than at any other time during history. The ability of posters to inspire, inform, and persuade combined with vibrant design trends in many of the participating countries to produce thousands of interesting visual works. As a valuable historical research resource, the posters provide multiple points of view for understanding this global conflict. As artistic works, the posters range in style from graphically vibrant works by well-known designers to anonymous broadsides (predominantly text).

For more information see part 1. For earlier examples see parts 1 - 2 also.

This is part 3 of a 9-part series on WW1 posters.

1915-18 You are Wanted by the U.S. Army
by K.M. Bara ( USA )
 colour lithograph 105 x 70 cm

1915-1916 Enlist
by Fred Spear ( USA )
Reference to sinking of the Lusitania by a German U-Boat
rotogravure 82 x 57 cm

On May 7, 1915, less than a year after World War 1 erupted across Europe, a German U-boat torpedoed and sank the RMS Lusitania, a British ocean liner en route from New York to Liverpool, England. Of the more than 1,900 passengers and crew-members on board, more than 1,100 perished, including more than 120 Americans. Nearly two years would pass before the United States formally entered World War I, but the sinking of the Lusitania played a significant role in turning public opinion against Germany, both in the United States and abroad.

1916 2me Emprunt de la Defense Nationale
by Alcide Robaudi ( France )
colour lithograph 119 x 80 cm
Alcide Thophile Robaudi  (1850-1928) was born in Nice in 1850 and died in Paris in 1928, was a French painter and illustrator.  He was a student of the sculptor Gustav Bonardel and of Flix Malard in at drawing school Nice.  Alcide Thophile Robaudi continued his training at the School of Fine Arts in Paris in the studio of Jean-Lon Grme in 1865. 

A genre painter, he was also influenced by the current orientalists.  He was best known as the illustrator of deluxe editions of works of famous writers such as George Sand, Paul Verlaine, and Alexandre Dumas.

1916 Altona's Opfertag, 18. Januar 1916
by Ailhelm Batterman ( Germany )
colour lithograph 86 x 69 cm

Wilhelm Jakob Batterman ( 1872-1964 ) was a German painter.

1916 Altonaer Kriegshilfe Blumentag
by Wilhelm Batterman ( Germany )
colour lithograph 88 x 65 cm

1916 Aufwärts, Oberbayerische Flugspende
by Fritz Erler ( Germany )
colour lithograph 125 x 87 cm

Fritz Erler (1868 – 1940) was a German painter, graphic designer, and scenic designer. Although most talented as an interior designer, he is perhaps best remembered for several propaganda posters he produced during WW1. Along with Arthur Kampf, Erler was one of the official military painters for the Oberste Heeresleitung. His paintings were commissioned as war propaganda.

He was born in Frankenstein (Schlesien). Beginning in 1886 he studied under Albrecht Bräuer at the school of art in Breslau. He also attended the Académie Julian in Paris. In 1895 he moved to Munich and lived from 1918 in Holzhausen am Ammersee. His first designs date from 1893: vases, glass windows, book covers, later furniture, theatrical sets, and interior decorations. In 1896 he was a founding member of the magazine “Jugend.” He also painted several portraits around the start of the 20th century, most notably of Richard Strauss and Gerhart Hauptmann.

1916 Ausstellung für Kriegsfürsorge, Cöln, August-September 1916; Kriegsbeschädigten-fürsorge, Berufs-Ausbildung und Umbildung
by Iise Hoeltx ( Germany )
colour lithograph 88 x 63 cm

1916 Exposition de l'oeuvre de guerre de Henry de Groux
by Henri de Groux ( France )
colour lithograph 79 x 109 cm
Henry de Groux (1866-1930) was a Belgian Symbolist, painter, sculptor and lithographer. He spent most of his active career in Paris. He produced many works depicting the horrors of the First World War in the latter part of his career.
De Groux was the son of the painter and engraver Charles de Groux. Like his father, he trained at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts in Brussels. Henry was elected a member of les XX in 1886, but was expelled in 1890 when he refused to have his works displayed in the same gallery as Vincent van Gogh.
De Groux subsequently moved to Paris, where he befriended Émile Zola. In Paris he also rubbed shoulders with other artists such as Toulouse-Lautrec, Whistler, Gauguin, Ensor, Rodin and Debussy.

De Groux exhibited all over Europe at the salons of Paris, Brussels, Ostend, Spa, Amsterdam, London and Florence. In the latter places he was interned in a psychiatric hospital. He escaped from it and walked all the way to back to Marseille. He illustrated various literary works. He contributed lithographs to L'Estampe originale (1893) and L'Épreuve (1895).

1916 Gold zerschlächt Eisen. Bringt eurer Gold zur Goldankaufstelle
by Julius Diez ( Germany )
colour lithograph 46 x 34 cm
Julius Diez (1870 – 1957) was a German artist, active in etching, drawing, painting and graphic designSeveral works by the artist have been sold at auction, including 'Allegorie' sold at Ketterer Kunst Munich 'Old Masters & Art of the 19th Century' in 2009.

1916 La Journée Serbe 25 juin 1916
by Charles Fouqueray ( France )
 colour lithograph 114 x 81 cm
Charles Dominique Fouqueray (1869 – 1956) was a French painter. He studied at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris under Alexandre Cabanel and Fernand Cormon. From 1908 he was Peintre de la Marine, following the career of his father, a naval officer. He was recipient of the 1909 Prix Rosa Bonheur, then in 1914 the first Prix de l’Indochine. 

1916 On les aura! 2e Emprunt de la Défense Nationale Souscrivez by Abel Faivre ( France )
colour lithograph 114 x 79 cm

Notes on Abel Faivre in Part 2.

1916 Salon des Armées
by Henri Dangon ( France )
colour lithograph 121 x 79 cm

Not much is known about Henri Dangon except that he was an artist who was mobilised as part of the French Army during WW1, I 1916 the Ministry of War promised artists serving in the war that their work would be shown in the official war exhibitions on the home front. The Government sponsored Salon des Armées to show the work of mobilised artists. The exhibition proved very popular and realised 60,000 francs in proceeds, which supported not only needy artists at home but also the disabled. This poster by Dangon won First Prize: a soldier holding a small wooden statue of Winged Victory that he has been carving.

1916 Volkspende für die deutschen Kriegs-und Zivil-Gefangenen
by Ludwig Hohlwein ( Germany )
colour lithograph 42 x 29 cm

Notes on Ludwig Hohlwein in Part 1.

1916 Your Country Needs You! Join the Navy Now!
by Hazel Roberts ( USA )
colour lithograph

1916 Women Awake! Your Country Needs You
by Hazel Roberts ( USA )
colour lithograph
1916 Zeichnet die fünfte Kriegsanleihe ( Czech Republic )
colour lithograph 148 x 85 cm

1916 Zeichnet vierte österreichische Kriegsanleihe
by Adolf Karpellus
Adolf Karpellus, the son of a major in the Austro-Haungarian Army was born in Galicia in 1869. After studying in Vienna and Paris he became a painter and poster designer. During WW1 Karpellus produced a large number of posters and postcards for the Central Powers. He died in Vienna in 1919.

1916-18 Current Events
by J. Carl Mueller ( USA )
chromolithograph poster

1916-18 Your Country Calls. Enlist. Plow-Buy Bonds ( USA )
 colour lithograph

1916c Columbia Call. Enlist Now for U.S. Army
by Frances Adams Halsted ( USA )
colour lithograph 102.3 x 75.4 cm

1917 3e Emprunt de a Défense Nationale Crédit Lyonnais
by Abel Faivre ( France )
colour lithograph 80 x 59 cm
Notes on Abel Faivre in Part 2.

1917 3e Emprunt de la Défense Nationale
 by Auguste Leroux ( France )
colour lithograph 115 x 80 cm

Jules Marie Auguste Leroux (1871-1954) was a French painter and illustrator. As a young man he entered the École nationale supérieure des arts décoratis where he studied drawing of nudes from models and after academics. He was forced to work on fashion drawings and illustrations for children. In 1892 he was admitted to the École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts, where he studied in the studio of Léon Bonnat. 
He later left for Italy for three years of study at the Villa Medici in Rome from 1895 to 1898, accompanied by the painter Adolphe Deechenaud and musician Henri Rabaud. At the villa, he met the musician Henri Busser, with whom he befriended and whose portrait he painted. He exhibited at the Salon of French artists from the beginning of the year 1898. He earned a bronze medal at the Universal Exhibition in Paris in 1900.

He was a Professor at the École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts in Paris for 30 years, a jury member of the committee of French Artists Society in 1904, an art teacher at the Academy de la Grande Chaumiere, and was made a knight of the Legion of Honour.

1917 "You - Help my Boy Win the Rar" Buy a Liberty Bond ( USA )
colour lithograph 28 x 53 cm

1917 A Wonderful Opportunity for You. United States Navy
by Charles E. Ruttan ( USA )
colour lithograph 95 x 52 cm
Charles Edwin Ruttan (1884-1939) was a Canadian-born painter. He served in the United States Naval Reserve Force as Pilot Lieutenant during WW1. Because of his background with painting aerial combat scenes, Ruttan was put in charge of pictorial records of trans-Atlantic flights for the U.S. Navy. 

In 1916 Ruttan entered the Naval Militia. His ranking in the Navy Reserve was Lieutenant. Ruttan, a qualified pilot, was temporarily assigned to the U.S.S. Melville, which was a supply and repair ship for seaplanes at Ponta Delgada. Here, Ruttan was designated by the Navy Department as the official artist of the flight. His experience with painting naval aviation scenes on the Western Front secured him the position. His paintings were compiled for the U.S. Navy Department historical archives. They depicted scenes of bombing raids at Zeebrugge, Paris, and other locations. In 1918, Ruttan was stationed at the U.S. Coastal Air Station at Montauk, New York. After the war, Ruttan illustrated a series of paintings that depicted the first successful crossing of the Atlantic by a flight of Navy Curtiss NC seaplanes.
In 1919, Ruttan moved to Los Angeles where he worked in Hollywood as a painter and artist.

1917 Achetez le Timbre Antituberculeux
colour lithograph 89 x 60 cm ( France )

1917 All together! Enlist in the Navy
by Henry Reuterdahl ( USA )
colour lithograph
Henry Reuterdahl (1870 – 1925) was a Swedish-American painter highly acclaimed for his nautical artwork. He had a long relationship with the United States Navy. In addition to serving as a Lieutenant Commander in the United States Naval Reserve Force, he was selected by President Theodore Roosevelt to accompany the Great White Fleet voyage in 1907 to document the journey. In addition to his artwork, he was a frequent writer on naval topics, and served as an editor of Jane's Fighting Ships. Reuterdahl was born in Malmö, Sweden. He received his academic education in Stockholm. He taught himself to draw, and in 1893 was commissioned to do illustrations of the Chicago World’s Fair. He decided to remain in the United States, and after his 1899 marriage he made his home in New Jersey. 

Although he never had any formal training in art, the self-taught Reuterdahl won a job as an illustrator-correspondent during the Spanish–American War. In the years prior to WW1 he traveled extensively with the Navy and became their official artist during the war, where he was head of the poster bureau. At that time, he was considered America's foremost naval artist. Reuterdahl was a member of the Society of Illustrators and the American Watercolour Society. He exhibited his work in the 1913 Armory Show, although he was not considered a Modernist. He also taught at the Art Students League of New York.

1917 Allgemeine Wäschesammlung 1917
by Franz Griessier ( Austria )
colour lithograph 95 x 63 cm

1917 America Calls. Enlist in the Navy
by Joseph Christian Leyendecker ( USA )
colour lithograph 104 x 71 cm

Joseph Christian Leyendecker (1874 – 1951) was one of the pre-eminent American illustrators of the early 20th Century. He is best known for his poster, book and advertising illustrations, the trade character known as The Arrow Collar Man, and his numerous covers for The Saturday Evening Post.
Between 1896 and 1950 Leyendecker illustrated more than 400 magazine covers including 322 for The Saturday Evening Post, as well as many advertisement illustrations for its interior pages. No other artist, until the arrival of Norman Rockwell two decades later, was so solidly identified with one publication.

1917 America Gave You All You Have To Give
Give It - She Needs It Now!
by Frank Walter Taylor ( USA )
lithograph 102 x 72 cm

Frank Walter Taylor (1874-1921) was a major early twentieth century American illustrator. Taylor first studied under his father, Frank H. Taylor, who had been a Civil War artist and correspondent. He continued his studies in 1896 at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts. While there, Frank Taylor was awarded a traveling scholarship which enabled him to conclude his education in Paris. He then returned to Philadelphia in 1898 and established a studio there.

During the following twenty years, Frank Walter Taylor was a leading illustrator of the American scene, and he regularly contributed his art to such national publications as "Harper's Monthly" and "Collier's". He also authored and illustrated a number of stories for leading periodicals. Frank Walter Taylor was a full member of the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts and the Society of Illustrators. He was awarded a Medal of Honour for Illustration at the Panama Pacific International Exposition in 1915.

1917 America's Tribute to Britain
by Frederic G. Cooper ( USA )
colour woodcut 76 x 51 cm

Frederic G. Cooper (born 1883) was a well-known American graphic designer, poster artist, and illustrator. Cooper was born in Oregon and was educated at the Mark Hopkins Art Institute in San Francisco. He moved to New York City in 1904, where he worked as a freelance artist creating designs for New York Edison, Westinghouse, and many other companies. During World War I, he designed posters for the War Department and the U.S. Food Administration.  His war posters won high praise for their use of all lower-case lettering whose warmth and character obviated the need for additional illustration (not applicable to this particular poster).

1917 Are YOU in this?
by Robert Baden-Powell 1917 ( UK )
colour lithograph 76 x 50 cm

Robert Baden-Powell (1857–1941) was a Lieutenant-General in the British Army. He is best known for founding the Boy Scouts when he learned that his military textbook Aids to Scouting was being used for training boys in woodcraft. He then wrote Scouting for Boys and retired from the army in 1910 to devote his time to the group. His sister, Agnes, helped to found the Girl Guides and worked with Juliette Gordon Low to bring Girl Scouts to the United States. Baden-Powell was also an illustrator and painter.

1917 Are You Trained to do Your Share? Plattsburg ( USA )
colour lithograph 64 x 49 cm

1917 Back Him Up! Buy Victory Bonds ( Canada )
colour lithograph 92 x 61 cm

1917 Blood or Bread
Others are giving their blood...
by Henry Raleigh ( USA )
colour lithograph 73 x 53 cm

Henry Patrick Raleigh ( 1880–1944 ) started and ended life in poverty and despair. But in between, he spent decades painting high society pictures and living the opulent life of one of the highest paid illustrators in the country.
At age 17, his knack for drawing landed him a job as a newspaper artist for the San Francisco Bulletin. Raleigh's work soon attracted the attention of art directors and publishers who offered him better assignments. He moved to New York where he gradually progressed from newspapers to top magazines such as Vanity Fair,Harper's BazaarColliers and Saturday Evening Post.

Unfortunately, over time styles changed (along with social values and taste in art) and his work dried up. Raleigh could not adapt; bankrupt and bitter, he committed suicide in 1944 by jumping out of the window of a sleazy hotel in Times Square.

1917 Bonds - Which?
by Oscar Edward Cesare ( USA )
colour lithograph 55 x 53 cm

Oscar Edward Cesare (1883-1948) was a Swedish-born American caricaturist, painter, draughtsman and editorial cartoonist. At eighteen he moved to Paris to study art, then travelled to Buffalo, New York, to continue his studies. In 1903 he moved to Chicago, and by 1911 he was living in New York City. By 1913, his success as an illustrator allowed him to exhibit at the legendary 1913 Armry Show. Cesare worked at several publications throughout his career, including the Chicago Tribune, New York World, New York Sun, New York Evening Post etc. In 1920, he became a regular contributor to the Sunday magazine of the New York Times and continued until a few years before his death in 1948.
In October 1922 Cesare had the very rare privilege of gaining admittance to the Kremlin in Moscow to paint sketches of the Soviet leader Lenin. He was also able to make sketches of Leon Trotsky on the same trip.

He died in 1948 in Stamford, Connecticut. 

1917 Britishers - You're Needed
Come Across Now
by Lloyd Myers ( USA )
colour lithograph 104 x 71 cm

Lloyd Burton Myers was born in Sterling, IL in 1892. Myers lived in New York City and studied at the ASL there before moving to Los Angeles in the mid-1930s. By 1938 he was a resident of San Francisco where he was the art director of Bowman-Deute-Cummings Agency. He died in San Mateo, CA in 1955. He was a member of the American Watercolur Society; Salmagundi Club; Society of Illustrators (NYC).

1917 Buy Liberty Bonds ( USA )
colour lithograph 104 x 69 cm

1917 Buy United States Government War Savings Stamps
by William Balfour Ker ( USA )
colour lithograph 76 x 102 cm

William Balfour Ker (1877-1918) was born in Dunville, Ontario, Canada on July 25, 1877 of Scottish heritage. His mother, Lily Florence Bell, was a first cousin of Alexander Graham Bell. The Ker family immigrated to the U.S. in 1880. His early education and training are unknown. As a young man, Ker was an an avowed Socialist, his art often reflecting his political beliefs.
In the 1890's, he became a naturalized citizen and a student of the great illustrator Howard Pyle.
He died in 1918 in New York. 

1917 Come On - Join Now
15,000,000 Members by Christmas
by Richard Fayerweather Babcock ( USA )
colour lithograph 92 x 60 cm

Richard Fayerweather Babcock (1887-1954) was born in Denmark on June 4, 1887.  Babcock studied at the Art Students League  in NYC, Art Institute of Chicago, and in Munich.  He lived in Pittsburgh, PA during 1922-26 and Evanston, IL in 1947.  His illustrations appeared in Encyclopaedia Brittanica.  While in California, he painted a mural in the U.S. Grant Hotel in San Diego. During his last years he taught at the Chicago Academy of Fine Arts.  He died in 1954.

1917 Come On, Boys! Do Your Duty by Enlisting Now!
by Vojtěch 
Preissig ( USA ) 
colour silkscreen 88 x 63.4 cm

Vojtëch Preissig ( 1873 – 1944 ) was a Czech typographer, printmaker, designer, illustrator, painter and teacher. He studied in Prague at the School of Applied Industrial Art (in Friedrich Ohmann's Decorative Architecture workshop) from 1892 to 1896 and at the School of Decorative Architecture from 1897 to 1898. In 1897 he moved to Paris and worked for two years with the Czech artist Alphonse Mucha. He moved to the USA in in 1910 and taught in various art institutions.

During his time with the Wentworth Institute he designed recruitment posters for the United States armed forces of WW1 which were principally aimed at Czech immigrants.

1917 Defeat the Kaiser and His U-boats ( USA )
colour lithograph 54 x 36 cm